What is myopic macular degeneration?
Myopia is a common eye condition where distant objects appear blurry. Myopic eyes are longer than they should. When the eye is too long, there could be biological and mechanical changes to the layers at the back of the eye. This condition is often refereed to as degenerative, malignant, or pathological myopia. When the changes involve the macula it is often called myopic macular degeneration (MMD), myopic maculopathy, etc.
Symptoms of MMD
MMD symptoms are similar to other types of macular degeneration and can include
Distorted vision (lines look wavy)
Dry MMD causes a gradual loss of central vision; wet MMD is like wet AMD and can cause rapid loss of central vision
Blank spots in vision, especially central vision
Trouble seeing shades of colors
Difficulty in adjusting your eyes going from brightly lit to dim spaces, and vice-versa
Prevalence of MMD
More than 1,000,000 people suffer from MMD in the US
Myopia in children is an epidemic in East Asia
Treatment of MMD
More information on the internet
(website, US) Pathological myopia
(website, UK) Macular society
(website, IR) Fighting blindness
(website, US) Macular degeneration association
(website, US) Bright focus foundation
(website, US) American academy of ophthalmology
(website, US) National eye institute
(website, US) Clinical trials
(PDF, UMich) Myopic degeneration
Review articles on MMD
(review book) Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Atlas of Pathologic Myopia, Springer 2020
(review article) P.N. Baird, et al. Myopia, Nature reviews disease primers, 99 (2020)
(review article) Ruiz-Medrano, et al. Myopic maculopathy: Current status and proposal for a new classification and grading system (ATN), Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 80, 69 (2019)
(review article) Wu, Pei-Chang et al. Epidemiology of Myopia, 6, 386 (2016)
(review article) Silva R. Myopic maculopathy: A review, Ophthalmologica. 2012; 228: 197-213.
(review article) Wong TY, Ferreira A, Hughes R, et al. Epidemiology and disease burden of pathologic myopia and myopic choroidal neovascularization: An evidence-based systematic review. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014; 157(1): 9-25.
(article) Young TL. The molecular genetics of human myopia: An update, Optom Vis Sci. 2009; 86(1): E8-E22.