Patient Resources

What is Myopic Macular Degeneration (MMD)?

Myopia is a common eye condition where distant objects appear blurry. Myopic eyes are longer than they should be. When the eye is too long, there could be biological and mechanical changes to the layers at the back of the eye. This condition is often referred to as degenerative or pathological myopia. When the changes involve the macula, it is often called myopic macular degeneration (MMD) or myopic maculopathy.

Prevalence of MMD

  • Over 40 million people around the world currently suffer from MMD.

  • In Japan, MMD alone has been found to cause 12.2% of visual impairments. (approximately 200,000 people).

  • More than 1,000,000 people suffer from MMD in the USA alone.

  • Projected figures: By 2050, it is estimated that there will be 1 billion high myopes in the world, at least 10% of whom (or 100,000,000) will develop MMD.


Treatment of MMD

  • There is currently no treatment for dry MMD, which accounts for 90% of all cases.

  • The most common treatment for wet MMD is an injection in the eye of an anti-VEGF drug, which makes the abnormal blood vessels shrink. Some common commercial names for these medications are Avastin, Lucentis, and Eylea. Other treatments, such as laser or photodynamic therapy, are available, but they are less commonly used. Some patients need only one or a few injections to control wet MMD, while others may need more frequent treatment. Wet MMD needs to be treated quickly (ideally within a few days of the bleed) to ensure the best possible visual recovery.

Educational videos

Living well with MMD

Patient stories

Medical and Research articles on myopia and MMD

Please note: Some of these links lead to scientific papers in research journals. Depending on where you live, you may not have access to the full texts. You can always email the corresponding author of the paper to ask for the full text.

Additional sources of information

Potential Future Treatments

Please note: These videos discuss cell replacement therapies that are currently being studied. Some are still in the laboratory, while others are in animal and human studies. None of these potential therapies is available yet; they are experimental. Most of these videos mention cell replacement therapies for other retinal diseases, like age-related macular degeneration, or inherited retinal diseases.